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Glossary of Terms and Definitions

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  •  A
    • Advanced Super View - also called axially symmetric vertical alignment was developed by Sharp. It is a VA mode where liquid crystal molecules orient perpendicular to the substrates in the off state. The bottom sub-pixel has continuously covered electrodes, while the upper one has a smaller area electrode in the center of the subpixel.

    • AMOLED - Active-matrix OLED (Active-matrix organic light-emitting diode or AMOLED) is a display technology for use in mobile devices such as mobile phones, such as those made by HTC Corporation. OLED describes a specific type of thin display technology which doesn't require a backlight, and Active-Matrix refers to the technology behind the addressing of pixels.

    • Amorphous Silicon - A semiconductor material that has no definite or regular crystal structure and is used to make the thin-film transistors (TFTs) in an active-matrix LCD or OLED.

    • Amorphous Silicon Thin-Film Transistor (a-Si TFT) - Thin-film transistors made with amorphous silicon, typically used in the active matrix backplane of an LCD or OLED display.

    • Anisotropy - is the property of being directionally dependent, as opposed to isotropy, which implies homogeneity in all directions. It can be defined as a difference, when measured along different axes, in a material's physical property (absorbance, refractive index, density, etc.) An example of anisotropy is the light coming through a polarizer. An example of an anisotropic medium is wood, which is easier to split along the grain than against it.

    • Autopolyscopy - Displays that show more than two simultaneous images. In the consumer market, such technology is often referred to as a “3D display”, though such a description would more accurately apply to volumetric displays.

    • Axially symmetric vertical alignment - also called Advanced super view was developed by Sharp. It is a VA mode where liquid crystal molecules orient perpendicular to the substrates in the off state. The bottom sub-pixel has continuously covered electrodes, while the upper one has a smaller area electrode in the center of the subpixel.

  •  B
    • Birefringence - or double refraction, is the decomposition of a ray of light into two rays (the ordinary ray and the extraordinary ray) when it passes through certain types of material, such as calcite crystals or boron nitride, depending on the polarization of the light.

    • Black Matrix (BM) - A patterned layer in an LCD’s color filter assembly whose purpose is to prevent light leakage and improve contrast.

    • Brightness Enhancement Film (BEF) - A prism film that increases a display's brightness.

    • Buffing - To polish or shine with a piece of soft material.

  •  C
    • Capacitive touch screen - Touch screen which senses electrical pulses from the user (multi touch).

    • Chiral Nematic - A special class of nematic liquid crystals that refers to the unique ability to selectively reflect one component of circularly polarized light.

    • Clearing point - The temperature at which the transition between the mesophase with the highest temperature range and the isotropic phase occurs.

    • Cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs) - Refers to light sources such as neon lamps that are based on gas discharge principles, where the cathode of the lamp is not independently heated. CCFLs remain popular for LCD backlighting and computer case modification.

    • Color breakup - A transient or dynamic distortion of the color in a color television picture that can originate in videotape equipment, a television camera, or a receiver.

    • CRT - Cathode Ray Tube. A large glass vacuum tube in which a beam of electrons is fired at the phosphor coated screen. The energy causes the phosphors to glow, giving off light.

    • Crystallization - is the (natural or artificial) process of formation of solid crystals precipitating from a solution, melt or more rarely deposited directly from a gas. Crystallization is also a chemical solid-liquid separation technique, in which mass transfer of a solute from the liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline phase occurs.

  •  D
    • Diamond-like carbon (DLC) - Exists in seven different forms[1] of amorphous carbon materials that display some of the unique properties of diamond. They are usually applied as coatings to other materials that could benefit from some of those properties. All seven contain significant amounts of sp3 hybridized carbon atoms

    • Dielectric - An insulator used to describe nonmetals and their interaction with electric, magnetic or electromagnetic fields, including the storage of electric and magnetic energy and its dissipation. Many phenomena in electronics, solid state and optical physics can be described using the underlying assumptions of dielectrics.

    • Differential signaling - is a method of transmitting information electrically by means of two complementary signals sent on two separate wires.

    • Differential signaling - is a method of transmitting information electrically by means of two complementary signals sent on two separate wires. The technique can be used for both analog signaling, as in some audio systems, and digital signaling, as in RS-422, RS-485, Ethernet (twisted-pair only), PCI Express and USB.

    • Digital micromirror device - or DMD, is an optical semiconductor that is the core of DLP projection technology, and was invented by Dr. Larry Hornbeck and Dr. William E. "Ed" Nelson of Texas Instruments (TI) in 1987.

    • Direct conversion detectors - Direct conversion of x-ray energy into electrical charge has been extensively developed into imaging products in the past few years. Applications include general radiography, mammography, x-ray crystallography, portal imaging, and non-destructive testing.

  •  E
    • Electroluminescence (EL) - is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to the passage of an electric current or to a strong electric field. This is distinct from black body light emission resulting from heat (incandescence), from a chemical reaction (chemiluminescence), sound (sonoluminescence), or other mechanical action (mechanoluminescence).

    • Electroluminescence (EL) - is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to the passage of an electric current or to a strong electric field. This is distinct from black body light emission resulting from heat (incandescence), from a chemical reaction (chemiluminescence), sound (sonoluminescence), or other mechanical action (mechanoluminescence).

    • Electromagnetic interference - (or EMI, also called radio frequency interference or RFI) is a disturbance that affects an electrical circuit due to either electromagnetic conduction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source.

    • Electrostatic discharge (ESD) - is the sudden and momentary electric current that flows between two objects at different electrical potentials caused by direct contact or induced by an electrostatic field.

    • Extrusion coating - The coating of a molten web of synthetic resin on to a substrate material. It is a versatile coating technique used for the economic application of various plastics, notably polyethylene, onto cardboard, paper, aluminium foils, cellulose or plastic films.

  •  F
    • field emission display (FED) - is a flat panel display technology that uses large-area field electron sources to provide electrons that strike colored phosphor to produce a color image. In a general sense, a FED consists of a matrix of cathode ray tubes, each tube producing a single sub-pixel, grouped in threes to form red-green-blue (RGB) pixels.

    • First Minimum - An LCD construction technique where the cell geometry is optimized for maximum contrast and viewing angle. The geometry is different for each LCD fluid.

    • Flicker - Visible fading between cycles displayed on video displays, especially the refresh interval on cathode ray tube (CRT) based computer screens. Flicker occurs on CRTs when they are driven at a low refresh rate, allowing the screen's phosphors to lose their excitation (afterglow) between sweeps of the electron gun.

    • Fluoroscope - consists of an x-ray source and fluorescent screen between which a patient is placed.

    • Fluoroscopy - is an imaging technique commonly used by physicians to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of a patient through the use of a fluoroscope.

  •  G
    • Gamma Factor - The Lorentz factor or Lorentz term appears in several equations in special relativity, including time dilation, length contraction, and the relativistic mass formula. Because of its ubiquity, physicists generally represent it with the shorthand symbol ? (lowercase gamma). It gets its name from its earlier appearance in Lorentzian electrodynamics. The Lorentz factor is named after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Lorentz.

    • Gate - An electrode that regulates the current flow in a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistor.

  •  H
    • High aperture ratio - The ratio between the transmissive portion of a pixel and its surrounding opaque electronics (eg, the thin-film transistors), expressed as a percentage.

    • High-definition television (or HDTV, or just HD) - refers to video having resolution substantially higher than traditional television systems (standard-definition TV, or SDTV, or SD). HD has one or two million pixels per frame, roughly five times that of SD.

    • Hillock - The displacement of a thin-film material that occurs when heated and cooled. Hillocks of aluminum are sometimes found in the aluminum interconnect metal on semiconductor devices

    • Homeotropic Aignment - one of the ways of alignment of liquid crystalline molecules. Homeotropic alignment is the state in which a rod-like liquid crystalline molecule aligns perpendicularly to the substrate. In the polydomain state, the parts also are called homeotropic domains. In contrast, the state in which the molecule aligns to a substance in parallel is called homogeneous alignment.

    • Homogeneous alignment also known as Planar alignment - this is the state of alignment of molecules which is opposite to homeotropic alignment. The molucules here align parallel to a substrate.

  •  I
    • Image Sensor - is a device that converts an optical image to an electric signal.

    • Indirect-conversion detectors - have a scintillator that first converts X-rays into visible light. That light is then converted into an electric charge by means of photodetectors such as amorphous silicon photodiode arrays or CCDs. Thin-film transistor (TFT) arrays may be used in both direct- and indirect-conversion detectors.

    • Indium tin oxide - (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide) is a solid solution of indium(III) oxide (In2O3) and tin(IV) oxide (SnO2), typically 90% In2O3, 10% SnO2 by weight. It is transparent and colorless in thin layers while in bulk form it is yellowish to grey. In the infrared region of the spectrum it is a metal-like mirror.

    • Indium tin oxide (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide) - a solid solution of indium(III) oxide (In2O3) and tin(IV) oxide (SnO2), typically 90% In2O3, 10% SnO2 by weight. It is transparent and colorless in thin layers while in bulk form it is yellowish to grey. In the infrared region of the spectrum it is a metal-like mirror.

  •  J
    • Just noticeable difference - customarily abbreviated with lowercase letters as jnd, is the smallest detectable difference between a starting and secondary level of a particular sensory stimulus.[1] It is also known as the difference limen or the differential threshold.

  •  L
    • Luminance - a certain amount of light given in a certain direction.

  •  M
    • Mammography - The process of using low-dose amplitude-X-rays (usually around 0.7 mSv) to examine the human breast and is used as a diagnostic and a screening tool.

    • Market forecast - A core component of a market analysis. It projects the future numbers, characteristics, and trends in your target market.

    • Metal-induced lateral crystallization (MILC) - A technique, involving a low temperature crystallization step followed by a high temperature recrystallization step, has been applied to the formation of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) with enhanced material characteristics. A range of devices, including piezo-resistors, thermistors, resistors and thin-film transistors, has been fabricated both on MILC and regular low-pressure chemical vapor deposited (LPCVD) poly-Si. Compared to the latter, MILC poly-Si leads to much improved device performance.

    • Metal–insulator transitions - refer to changes in the transport properties of a given material. Roughly speaking, materials can be classified as metals, allowing for good conductivity of electric charges, and as insulators, where conductivity of charges is quickly suppressed.

    • Mother Glass - A large, fabricated glass substrate that is cut into individual units for LCD and gas plasma flat panel displays.

    • Motion blur - is the apparent streaking of rapidly moving objects in a still image or a sequence of images such as a movie or animation.

    • Motion portrayal - manipulation includes performing a motion estimation to determine objects in motion in content provided at an acquisition rate. An eye motion trajectory of a viewer is predicted based on the content to determine a region of interest.

    • Multiplexing - In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (also known as muxing) is a process where multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium.

  •  N
    • Nematic liquid crystal - is a translucent liquid that changes the polarity of light waves passing through it. The word “nematic” comes from the Greek word for thread, and describes the thread-like formations that can form in the liquid crystal. Nematic liquid crystal is frequently used in liquid-crystal displays (LCD) screens such as those on digital watches.

  •  O
    • Ohmic Contact - A region on a semiconductor device that has been prepared so that the current-voltage (I-V) curve of the device is linear and symmetric.

    • One Drop Fill (ODF) - In the traditional LCD injection method, the cell will be vacuum filled by capillary attraction after the two glass substrates are assembled. Such injection method has the drawbacks of wasting time and LC material.

  •  P
    • Passivation silicon nitride - is often used as an insulator and chemical barrier in manufacturing integrated circuits, to electrically isolate different structures or as an etch mask in bulk micromachining. As a passivation layer for microchips, it is superior to silicon dioxide, as it is a significantly better diffusion barrier against water molecules and sodium ions, two major sources of corrosion and instability in microelectronics. It is also used as a dielectric between polysilicon layers in capacitors in analog chips

    • Pin diode - a diode with a wide, lightly doped 'near' intrinsic semiconductor region between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor regions.

    • Pixels - The smallest visual element on a video display screen

    • plasma-addressed liquid crystal - A flat panel display that combines LCD and plasma technologies. It is more similar to the LCD monitor, which uses red, green and blue color filters rather than phosphors, but instead of using transistors to line up the liquid crystals, it uses gas-filled cells (plasma). See plasma display.

    • Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) - is a process used to deposit thin films from a gas state (vapor) to a solid state on a substrate.

    • Point-to-Point Differential Signaling (PPDS) - ensures reliable data transmission from the timing controller to the column driver/driver ICs through fewer data lines compared to the traditional multi-drop architecture

    • Proximity Aligner - an alignment system in which a mask and wafer are separated by a few microns in distance and the mask pattern is aligned and exposed onto the wafer.

  •  R
    • Radiance - The amount of light that passes through or that is sent from one area and falls within a given solid angle in a certain direction.

    • Radiance and spectral radiance - are radiometric measures that describe the amount of light that passes through or is emitted from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle in a specified direction. They are used to characterize both emission from diffuse sources and reflection from diffuse surfaces.

    • Reactive ion etching (RIE) - is an etching technology used in microfabrication. It uses chemically reactive plasma to remove material deposited on wafers. The plasma is generated under low pressure (vacuum) by an electromagnetic field. High-energy ions from the plasma attack the wafer surface and react with it.

    • Resistive touch screen - Touch screen which senses pressure applied (single touch only).

    • Resolution - Degree of detail on a computer’s display which is measured by the number of dots in a row and column.

    • Response time - is the time a system or functional unit takes to react to a given input.

    • Revenue - In business, revenue is income that a company receives from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers.

    • RGB color model - is an additive color model in which red, green, and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors. The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors, red, green, and blue.

  •  S
    • Scintillator - Material which exhibits scintillation - the property of luminescence when excited by ionizing radiation. Luminescent materials, when struck by an incoming particle, absorb its energy and scintillate, i.e. re-emit the absorbed energy in the form of a small flash of light, typically in the visible range.

    • Source (TFT) - is a process by which energy or a substance enters a system; "a heat source"; "a source of carbon dioxide".

    • Statistical process control (SPC) - is the application of statistical methods to the monitoring and control of a process to ensure that it operates at its full potential to produce conforming product. Under SPC, a process behaves predictably to produce as much conforming product as possible with the least possible waste. TN cell consists of two glass substrates coated with transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO), alignment layers (usually polyimide) are coated on the ITO surface, then they are usually rubbed in one direction, as a result, the LC molecules orient parallel to the rubbing direction.

    • Stereoscopy, stereoscopic - imaging or 3-D (three-dimensional) imaging is any technique capable of recording three-dimensional visual information or creating the illusion of depth in an image.

    • Subpixel Rendering - is a method of increasing the apparent resolution of an LCD display by anti-aliasing black and white text. The method takes advantage of the fact that each pixel is actually made up of three subpixels.

    • Substrate Generation - The underlying material on which a microelectronic device or storage media is built. Silicon is the most widely used substrate for chips, fibreglass for printed circuit boards and ceramic for multichip modules.

    • Surface acoustic wave (SAW) - is an acoustic wave traveling along the surface of a material exhibiting elasticity, with an amplitude that typically decays exponentially with depth into the substrate.

  •  T
    • Tape Carrier Package (TCP) - format is one way to meet the small outline and high leadcount interconnection needs of high performance microprocessors. The TCP has been designed to offer reduced pitch, thin package profiles, smaller footprint on the printed circuit board, without compromising performance.

    • Tapered Edge - A shallow depression at the edge of a panel used to receive joint reinforcement.

    • TFT – Thin Film Transistor - Technology employed in flat screen monitors, in which minute transistor elements control the alignment of liquid crystals in such a way that light is allowed to pass through or is blocked. Within the TFT element, the total brightness and color reproduction are simultaneously controlled. The light for every pixel passes through a color cell consisting of three color filters (red, green, blue), and every filter is equipped with a transistor that can be driven separately and controls the transmittance of light of every color element.

    • TFT Array - Multi-layered wiring for a larger flat panel display is formed by depositing molybdenum on a substrate in presence of a precursor gas containing at least one oxygen, nitrogen and carbon to form a molybdenum layer. An aluminum layer is deposited on the molybdenum layer.

    • The Poole-Frenkel effect (also known as Frenkel-Poole emission) - is a means by which an electrical insulator can conduct electricity. It is named after Yakov Frenkel, who published on it in 1938, and also after H. H. Poole (Horace Hewitt Poole, 1886-1962), Ireland.

    • Threshold voltage - Senses the electrons in the floating gate, and acts as the gate voltage to enable current to flow.

    • TN display - takes advantage of the ability of the nematic substance to rotate the polarization of light beams passing through it. Two polarizing filters, parallel planes of glass with their polarizing lines oriented at right angles with respect to each other, are positioned on either side of the liquid crystal. When light enters the display, it is polarized by the input filter.

  •  V
    • Vertical Alignment - An LC mode that increases viewing angle.

    • Vertical stripe color filter arrangement - The color filters are arranged to overlie respective picture elements and are further arranged to overlap each other over boundaries between respective picture elements with widths wider than the boundaries between the respective picture elements, thereby offsetting any misalignment of the filter arrangement during cementing.

    • Voltage Holding Ratio (VHR) - is a critical electrical parameter for liquid crystal displays (LCDs). VHR is a measure of the LCD ability to retain a voltage during the time between pixel updates (frame time).

  •  W
    • Wet Etching - is an etching process that utilizes liquid chemicals or etchants to remove materials from the wafer, usually in specific patterns defined by photo resist masks on the wafer.

  •  Y
    • Yield - In computer science, a point of return (and re-entry) of a coroutine
      • coroutines are program components that generalize subroutines to allow multiple entry points for suspending and resuming execution at certain locations.
      • a subroutine (also called procedure, method, function, or routine) is a portion of code within a larger program, which performs a specific task and is relatively independent of the remaining code.